Ich höre immer wieder von Menschen, dass sie die Vorstellung beunruhigt, dass sie vom Glauben abfallen könnten. Es geht mir hier nicht um eine Grundsatzdiskussion, denn hierfür müsste die gesamte Lehre der Erlösung gründlich unter die Lupe genommen werden. Meine Empfehlung: Schaffe dir dafür Thomas Schirrmacher, Der Römerbrief (zum Thema: Bd. 1, S. 247-260; Bd. 2, S. 92-123) an.
Die zentrale Stelle, die zu grossen Diskussionen Anlass gibt, ist Hebräer 6,4-6. Der Pastor und Autor Sam Storms hat eine genaue Erläuterung aus dem Zusammenhang des Hebräerbriefes geliefert. Er formuliert das Problem so:
I am focusing solely on the question of whether the terminology in vv. 4-5 would lead us to conclude that these individuals were born-again, justified, believers. Are these born-again Christian men and women? If so, the doctrine of eternal security is shattered. Or is it possible for a person to experience some form of spiritual 'enlightenment' and to 'taste' spiritual blessings and to 'partake' of the Holy Spirit and yet never know Jesus in a saving way? I believe the answer to this latter question is Yes.
Ich stimme seinen sechs exegetischen Hauptargumenten uneingeschränkt zu:
1. Das Bild des Bodens (Hebr 6,7-8): "The picture here is not of ground that receives frequent rain, yields life and vegetation, and then loses it. The picture is of two different kinds of ground altogether. One responds to the rain [spiritual blessings and opportunities] by producing bountiful vegetation, while the other is barren, lifeless, and thus condemned."
2. Die Zuversicht für die anderen (Hebr 6,10-12): "'the author says he is confident that most of his readers have better things than the people he described in verses 4-6, and these things are better in that his readers also have things that belong to salvation. This implies that the blessings in verses 4-6 were not things that belong to salvation'"
3. Die Sicherheit von Christi Teilhaber (Hebr 3,6+14): "holding fast in faith, i.e., persevering, proves that you became a partaker of Christ in the past. Failing to hold fast, i.e., apostatizing from the faith, proves that you never were a partaker of Christ."
4. Die andauernde Wirkung von Christi Werk (Hebr 10,14): "the offering of Christ on the cross has perfected that person for all time. For all time! In other words to become a beneficiary of the perfecting, justifying work of Christ on the cross is to be perfected in the sight of God forever."
5. Die Tätigkeit des Hohenpriesters des ewigen Bundes (Hebr 13,20-21): "The promise of the new and 'eternal' covenant is that God will put in his people a new heart and cause them to walk in His ways and not turn away from doing them good."
6. Was von den wahren Gläubigen im Hebräerbrief gesagt wird: "(1) God has forgiven their sins (10:17; 8:12); (2) God has cleansed their consciences (9:14; 10:22); (3) God has written his laws on their hearts (8:10; 10:16); (4) God is producing holiness of life in them (2:11; 10:14; 13:21); (5) God has given them an unshakable kingdom (12:28); (6) God is pleased with them (chp. 11; 13:16,21); (7) They have faith (4:3; 6:12; 10:22,38,39; 12:2; 13:7; etc.); (8) They have hope (6:11,18; 7:19; 10:23); (9) They have love (6:10; 10:33-34; 13:1); (10) They worship and pray (12:28; 13:15; 4:16; 10:22); (11) They obey God (5:9; 10:36; 12:10,11,14); (12) They persevere (3:6,14; 6:11; 10:23); (13) They enter God's rest (4:3,11); (14) They know God (8:11); (15) They are God's house, his children, his people (3:6; 2:10,13; 8:10); (16) They share in Christ (3:14); (17) They will receive future salvation (1:14; 7:25; 5:9; 9:28)."