Standpunkt: Alttestamentliche Gesetze und deren Gebrauch für den Christen

Passendes Buch:

Der dreifache Gebrauch des Gesetzes, für den ich im Podcast “Wie ist das mit dem Gesetz?” plädiere, wird von einigen namhaften reformatorisch gesinnten Theologen verworfen, u. a. Thomas Schreiner, Donald A. Carson und Wayne Grudem. Grudem verweist in seiner Ethik, Kapitel 8, auf interessante Aufsätze von David Dorsey, u. a. The Use of the Old Testament Law in the Christian Life.

In solchen Fragen kann man unterschiedlicher Auffassung sein. Ich lese mit Interesse die anderen Positionen. U. a. nahm ich dankbar diese Auflistung von Dorsey mit:

Geografisch bedingte Bestimmungen

(1) the cultivation ofthe Mediterranean olive tree and the use ofits fruit (Exod. 23:11; 27:20; 29:40; Lev. 2:4; 8:30; 24:2; Num. 28:5; Dent. 24:20, to list only a few); (2) the production and use of emmer wheat, including plowing (Dent. 22:10), sowing (Exod. 23:10; Lev. 19:19; 25:3:ff.; Dent. 22:9), pluc- king (Dent. 23:25), harvesting (Exod. 34:22; Dent. 16:9; 23:25); threshing (Lev. 15:20; 18:27; 25:4), gleaning (Lev. 19:9; Dent. 24: 19), and its various religious uses (Exod. 23: 15; 25:30; 29:32ff.; 34: 18; 40:23; Lev. 2: 1-16; 6:14-23; 7:12-13; 8:26,32; 21:6:ff.; Num. 4:7; 28:5:ff.; Dent. 16:3,8, etc.); (3) the cultivation of vineyards (Exod. 22:5; 23:11; Lev. 19:10; 25:3-5; Dent. 20:6); (4) the use of grapes and wine (Exod. 29:40; Lev. 23:13; Num. 6:3-4; 15:5:ff.; 28:14, etc.); (5) the production and use offlax (Lev. 13:47-48,52,59; Dent. 22:11)- including its products, such as linen (bad; Exod. 28:42; 39:28; Lev. 6: 10 [Heb. 6:31]; 16:4) and “fine linen” (ses; Exod. 25:4; 26:1,3 l:ff.; 27: 16,18; 28:5:ff., etc.); (6) the cultivation and use of the pomegranate, the date palm, acacia, al- mond, cassia, cinnamon, galbanum, frankincense, hyssop, Near Eastern poplar, bitter herb (Exod. 28:33-34; 39:24:ff., etc.); (7) the raising, safekeeping, slaughtering, eating, and uses of such Palestinian-and non-universal-animals as the Near Eastern ox (Exod. 20:17; 21:28-22:15; 23:12; 34:19; Lev. 3:1; 9:4; 22:23; 27:26; Dent. 5:14; 14:4; 22:10, etc.), the Syrian black goat (Exod. 25:4; 26:7; 36:14; Lev. 1:10; 3:6,12; 4:23:ff.; 5:6; 7:23; 16:1:ff.; 17:3; Num. 18:15-17; Dent. 14:4, etc.), the donkey (Exod. 23:4,12; Dent. 22:10); the camel (Lev. 11:14; Dent. 14:7), the “turtledove” (tar; Lev. 1:14; 5:7,11; 12:6,8; 14:22,30; 15:14,29), and the “pigeon” (y6nci, or guzal; Lev. 1:14; 5:7,11; 12:6,8; 14:22,30; Num. 6:10, etc.); (8) the eating of dozens of various and sundry animals, listed in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14; many of which are found only in the Levant or in the Mediterranean world-and nearly half of which have not been identified by modem scholars (such as the dilklpat in Dent. 14:18); (9) Also geographically restricted are the many climatically specific re- gulations, such as those which require particular actions at particular times of the calendar year; for example, the commandment to begin harvesting the standing grain seven weeks after Passover, in May/ June (Lev. 23:5-20; Dent. 16:1,9), or the ordinance that a feast be held in September/October at the end ofthe harvesting ofcrops (Lev. 23:33-39; Dent. 16:13-15). 

Kulturell bedingte Gesetze

(1) the style of slavery found in the ancient Near East(Exod. 20:8-10,17; 21:1-11,20-21,26-27,32; 23:12; Lev. 25:6,8-l7,39-55;Deut. 5:14- 15,21; 15:12-18; 16:11,14; 23:15-16);
(2) polygamy (Dent. 25:5-10);
(3) the bride price (m6har; Exod. 22: 16-17);
(4) concubinage (Lev. 19:20);
(5) the “kinsman redeemer” (g6 ‘el; Lev. 25:25-49, etc.);
(6) the giving of gannents in pledge (Exod. 22:26; Dent. 24:6,10-17); (7) gleaning (Lev. 19:10; Dent. 24:21);
(8) stoning (Dent. 13:10; 17:5; 21:21; 22:21,24, etc.);
(9) swearing oaths by invoking a deity (Lev. 5:4; 19:12; Num. 30:2; Dent. 6:13; 10:20, etc.);
(l0) the style of hereditary kingship practiced in the ancient Near East (Deut. ch. 17);
(11) city gates functioning as courtrooms (Deut. 21:19; 22:24; 25:7, etc.); (12) stone houses with plastered interior walls (Lev. 14:33-53);
(13) “town squares” adjacent to a city’s gate (rehiiJot; Deut. 13:16); (14) horse-drawn chariots (Deut. 20:1);
(15) forced labor (mas; Deut. 20:11)
(16) the flat roofs ofprivate homes (Deut. 22:8);
(17) tasseled gannents (Num. 15:38-40);
(18) granting special rights to the first-born son (Deut. 21:15-17);
(19) the tribal organization of society (Exod. 28:21; Num. 33:54; Deut.12:5,14, etc.);
(20) the blood avenger (Deut. 19:6ff.). 

Kultisch-religiöse Elemente des Nahen Ostens

(1) the Near-Eastern-style cultic sanctuary (cf. the Tabernacle regulations);
(2) the cultic altar, particularly the homed altar (Exod. 20:24; 21:14; 29:37,44; 30:27; 34:13; Deut. 7:5; 12:3, etc.);
(3) cultic incense (Exod. 30:8-9; Lev. 10: l; 16: 13, etc.);
(4) Levantine-style cultic offerings and sacrificial meals, including the ‘Old-offering, the minhd-offering, the hatta’t-offering, the ‘asiim- offering, and the .Selem-offering (Lev. chs. 1-7 and throughout the corpus);
(5) religious vows and votive offerings (Lev. 7:16-17; 22:21,27, etc.); (6) cherubim (Exod. 25:18-19; 26:1,31);
(7) the institution of the Nazarite (Num. ch. 6);
(8) the Near Eastern institution of the prophet (Deut. 18:14-22);
(9) the Near Eastern institution of the cultic priest (Exod. chs. 28-29; Lev. chs. 1-10, etc.).

Politisch-nationale Bestimmungen

(1) the selection and behavior of the nation’s king (Deut. 17:14-20); (2) the preservation and maintenance of the tribal system of internal or- ganization and the tribal divisions of the land of Canaan (Num. 34:13-18, etc.);
(3) the appointment of officials and judges over each of the twelve tribes (Deut. 16:18-20);
(4) the legal functions of the Levitical priests (Deut. 17:8-13);
(5) the choosing, function, and maintenance of the six cities of refuge (Deut. 19:1-13);
(6) the nation’s ancient-Near-Eastern-style judicial system (Exod. chs. 21-23);
(7) the rather stern foreign policies involving the countries of Ammon and Moab (Deut. 23:3-6);
(8) the more amicable foreign policies toward the Edomites and Egyptians (Deut. 23:7-8);
(9) the herem procedures to be followed against the Amalekites (Deut. 25:17-19) and Canaanites (Exod. 23:23-33, etc.);
(10) the practice of near-Eastern-style chariot and siege warfare (Deut. ch. 20, etc.);
(11) the treatment of women captured in warfare (Deut. 21: 10-14). 

Kultische Vorschriften der Stiftshütte/des Tempels

… the corpus is designed to establish and maintain a cultic regime which was restricted to ancient Israel and has been discontinued in the Church (cf. Heb. chs. 7-10). Hundreds oflaws in the corpus regulate the Tabernacle and its service (Exod. chs. 2-40, etc.), the Levitical/Aaronic priesthood (Exod. chs. 28-30; Lev. chs. 1-10, etc.), and the sacrificial system (Lev. chs. 1-7; 16-17; 22:17-30, etc.); and many other laws require these three interrelated cultic institutions. For example, the prescribed procedures for observance of Sabbath, New Moon, Passover, Feast ofWeeks, Feast ofTabernacles, and Day of Atonement all involve animal sacrifices (e.g., Lev. 23: 12,18,25; Num. 28:9-29:40, etc.),Leviticalpriests (Lev. 23:11,20, etc.), and the Tabernacle (Deut. 16:5-6,11,15).